The Truth About Rh- and O Blood Types: Part II


  • The ABO gene has 4 variations: A, B, AB, and O.
    • A is the original and oldest blood type.
    • B mutated 3.5 million years ago, due to 4 variations to the gene.
    • O mutated 1 million years ago, due to 1 missing link in the gene.
  • The ABO blood type classification is just one of 36 different human blood grouping systems, although it is the most important for a number of reasons.


  • The result of having a particular blood type and associated antigens is the production of particular antibodies in your blood’s plasma. [link]
    • Type A blood has anti-B antibodies in the plasma.
    • Type B blood has anti-A antibodies in the plasma.
    • Type AB has neither A nor B antibodies in the plasma, and thus (AB+) = universal recipient.
    • Type O has both A and B antibodies in the plasma, and thus (O-) = universal donor.
  • Determination of ABO blood group is based on the carbohydrate-based antigen (H) on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). (Link) [Yamamoto, et al., 1990Stieger, et al., 2005Yazer, 2005].


  • Blood type is defined by oligosaccharide structures (carbohydrate chains containing 3–10 sugar units).
  • This is the rationale for the “Eat Right for Your Blood Type” dietary thesis.
  • Different blood types create different sugar molecules in the blood. (LINK)
    • Type O blood contains less sugar than Type A or Type B.
    • Subsequent research has shown that these particular sugar molecules are also found on certain cells in the intestine. As a result, different kinds of intestinal bacteria attach to different degrees on intestinal cells containing A, B or O sugar molecules.
    • Scientist believe this affects intestinal flora, which is know to affect certain types of cancer.
    • Furthermore, the enzymes created and excreted by the pancreas also show sugar molecules that reflect blood type.
  • Chimpanzees have either A or O blood, and eat meat.
  • Gorillas are Type B only, and are vegan/vegetarians.
  • Orangoutangs may be A, B, or O and are omnivorous.


  • Red Blood Cells are made in the bone marrow.
  • Blood Type can be changed by a bone marrow transplant, certain types of cancers, and infections.
    • Specifically, Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) was been shown to turn Type A or Type B into Type O, although each reverts to its original type after medical treatment.
    • AML may be caused by excessive smoke exposure, radiation exposure, age, or other factors.
  • The bacterium Flavonifractor plautii can change the Types A and B blood to Type O by detaching the A and B sugar molecule. It thus, does not alter the bodies production of its natural blood type. (LINK)
    •  Flavonifractor plautii is found in human feces.


  • Type O is a recessive trait, the newest, and yet most common blood type worldwide.
  • It originated in Africa, 1 million years ago, and was highly adaptive for several reasons.
  • The most obvious is that Type O blood is highly resistant to malaria infection, which is why it is found in all the tropical regions, due to positive selection.
  • The second is that it confers superior hunting abilities due to a higher metabolism and ability to digest meat.


  • Approximately 63% of all people worldwide are Type O blood.
  • Highest concentrations are in Central & South America populations, where it approaches 100%.
  • Relatively high among:
    • Northern Australian Aborigines (70-90%).
    • Africa (60-80%).
    • Western Europeans (60-80%).
  • Lowest in Eastern Europe, Central Asia, China, India & Japan, & Central Australian Aborigines (50-60%).


  • Type O blood is highly resistant to malaria infection, and possibly other blood infections.
  • Less susceptible to coronaviruses.
  • In general, Type O blood has less risk for most cancers.
  • Type O is less at risk for coronary heart disease.
  • Type O individuals are comparatively resistant to anemia.
  • Lower levels of vWF and FVIII in Type O blood people have been associated with decreased risk of dementia and cognitive impairment, indicating that coagulation factors may play a role in these disorders.
  • Generally longer lifespan due to above factors.


  • Type O blood is the thinnest of all blood types, and the worst at clotting.
  • Von Willebrand Factor (vWF) is a protein that is one of several components of the coagulation system.
    • Type O blood has plasma vWF levels 25% lower than the general population.
    • The mean half-life of vWF in Type O subjects is approximately 10 hours.
    • The mean half life of vWF in all other ABO blood types is 25.5 hours.


  • Lower plasma vWF levels is a result of increased proteolysis
    • Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins or peptides into amino acids by enzymes.
    • Increased proteolysis leads to more rapid clearance.
    • This is the basis for Type O blood’s ability to process meat proteins into energy in the blood more efficiently.
  • Consequently, Type O individuals are less at risk for coronary heart disease.
  • Type O individuals are also comparatively resistant to anemia compared to A, B, and AB types.
  • Type O has the lowest haemoglobin, serum iron and transferring saturation levels. [link]


  • Type O individuals have the strongest stomach acid and can digest foods more easily, specifically, meat.
  • Type O individuals are more attuned to fasting and meat eating according to Dr. Peter D’Adamo in “Eat Right for You Blood Type” as well as the keto diet.


  • Type O blood has been shown to improve running and athletic performance by at least 10%.
    • Frequency of Type O blood is speculated to be high among all elite athletes.
    • The limiting factor to how fast a human can run over distance is the time it takes to process oxygen in exercising muscles.
    • The limiting fact of how long any animal can run is based on ATP production.
  • The frequency of the O blood type was high in elite water polo players in one study was found to be (72.2%) [link]
    • One reasonable explanation is the protection that this blood group may exert against the risk of developing some of the most frequent human pathologies, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and venous thrombosis.
    • Additionally, the ability to consume and quickly process larger amounts of meat into more energy available for athletic performance or muscle mass gain without accompanying gastrointestinal issues is an advantage.


DRAWBACKS of Type O Blood

  • Type O suffers increased incidence of plague, cholera, mumps, and tuberculosis infections.
  • Stronger stomach acid can lead to high incidence of ulcers.
  • More susceptible to noroviruses (stomach flu).
  • Mosquitos are more attracted to Type O blood.
  • Type O blood people may be more likely to have depression and intense anxiety and children may be at a greater risk of attention-deficit disorder.
    • This is due to excess ATP production and metal imbalances, discussed in PART ___
  • Due to its prevalence amount Caucasians, Type O blood has a 4-14% higher risk of certain skin cancers.


  • Rh terminology distinguishes between the antigens, genes, and the proteins.
  • The antigens are referred to by the letter designations, D, C, c, E, e.
    • Antigens are carbohydrates (sugars) that are attached to proteins or lipids.
    • An antigen is any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it.
    • Self-antigens are attached to your own cells as defense mechanisms to foreign antigens.
  • The RH genes are designated by capital letters, with or without italics, and include RHD and RHCE.
    • The different alleles of the RHCE gene are designated as RHce, RHCe, RHcE, according to which antigens they encode.
  • The proteins are indicated as RhD, RhCE.


  • This blood type may be written as: (Rh-), (Rh negative) or (RhD-negative).
  • Rh negative blood is a recessive trait.
  • There are more than 100 known mutations to the RHD gene, leading to a variety of expressions.
    • Most RHD mutations encodes changes to a single amino acid.
    • Many alter the quantity off RhD proteins on the membrane, or the topography of it.
    • These different expression can result in varying degrees of expression for the RHD gene.
      • These are known as Weak D, Partial D, and Del
    • The RHCE gene has only 42 mutations.
  • People who are Rh negative have fewer Rh proteins on the surface of their red blood cells.
  • Any of the ABO blood types (A, AB, B or O) can be (Rh-).
  • The Rh blood group system is one of the 36 human blood grouping systems, including the ABO classification.
    • The Rh group alone has around 50 antigens.
      • Among these antigens, D, C, c, E, and e, are the most important.
    • One gene codes for the D antigen, and another gene codes for C, c, E, e antigens.
      • These 2 genes are are tandemly organized in opposite orientations.
      • The RHCE gene is present in all individuals, irrespective of their blood type.
    • The presence of the D allele defines positive Rh (+)
    • Its absence defines negative Rh (-)
    • The genes RHD and RHCE that encode the RhD and RhCE proteins are 97% identical. 
  • The difference is that the RHD gene and RhD-negative blood group containing the D antigen has 35 less amino acid sequences at the end of the gene than the C/c and E/e antigens.


  • RhD-negative is the most significant of the 50 antigens because it is the most likely to produce an immune rejection response in blood transfusions and mothers during pregnancy. For example:
    • RhD- mothers carrying RhD+ babies will produce antigens against the child’s RhD+ blood.
    • This requires a vaccine to stop their immune system from making anti-D antibodies.
  • In addition to being present in red blood cells, Rh proteins are found in a variety of human organs including the skin, seminal vesicles, kidney, brain, liver, skin, ovaries, pancreas, prostate, and testis, and are commonly found in vertebrates in general, all serving a similar biochemical process.
  • Researchers have shown that the expression of the Rh gene in C. reinhardtii increases when cells are grown in air with higher concentrations of CO2.
  • Evidence 63,64 indicates the RhCE/D proteins are rapidly evolving, and suggests their function may be changing.


  • As a recessive expression of two genes, the RhD-negative gene may also be present as a silent allele in Rh+ people.
  • The RhD-negative silent allele occurs in about 40-45% in Europeans and Caucasians.
    • A total of 15% of the European population has Rh- blood, vs 7% worldwide.
    • The Basque people of Northern Spain and Southern France have the highest concentration of Rh- blood at 33%.
    • Moroccans from the Atlas Mountains have the 2nd highest concentration of Rh- at 29%.
    • Eastern Jews have the next highest concentrations of Rh-.
    • All three populations have some history of restricted inter-breeding within the group, thus compounding the diffusion of the Rh- allele and increasing its actual occurrence in the population.
      • Thus, this recessive gene likely became more prevalent within these smaller groups, before spreading into the populations of nearby areas.
  • In people of largely African ancestry, the Rh- allele occurs at a frequency of about 3-8% depending on the region.
  • In people of African-American descent, it occurs in 10-25%, due to the abhorations of slavery.
  • In Asians, Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans, it occurs at or below 1%.


  • The D-negative phenotype has arisen numerous times, and multiple genetic events are responsible for loss of RhD expression in different populations. (LINK)
  • Scientists have found no evidence for positive natural selection affecting the frequency of the RhD- gene.
    • The initial rise to intermediate frequency of the RhD- gene in European populations may simply be explained by genetic drift/founder effect, or by an older or more complex sweep that we are insufficiently powered to detect. [link]
    • Most recessive genes become prevalent in a population due to constricted populations breeding together for several generations in a certain place to become prevalent in the group as a whole and then spreads beyond its roots.


  • Rh proteins play a significant role as a channel for CO2 gas (carbon dioxide) across cell membranes in the body.
  • Rh proteins act as gas channels that helps speed the transfer of carbon dioxide (CO2) in and out of red blood cells. [link]
  • Rh blood group proteins are also members of the family of proteins involved in ammonia transport and may play a physiologically role in the sequestration of blood ammonia.
  • The uncharged ammonia molecule (NH3) is very toxic to brain cells and mitochondria.
  • The Rh complex may play a role in keeping the total blood ammonia level low by trapping ammonium inside red blood cells.


  • According to some parasitologists, it is possible that the better psychomotor performance of RhD-negative subjects in the Toxoplasma-free population, (where the abundance of wild cats in Europe was very low) could be the reason for spreading of the RhD- in the European population.
    • This contrasts to Africa and certain regions of Asia, home of wild cats, where it is disadvantageous to have an Rh- blood type.
    • Toxoplasma infection impairs dopaminergic signaling, increases risk seeking, and other causes pathological changes in both brain and behavior, including schizophrenia.
    • RhD heterozygosity protects against the negative effect of latent toxoplasmosis on psychomotor performance in infected subjects.
    • RhD-negative without a history of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies have shorter reaction times in tests of simple reaction times compared to RhD-positive subjects.
    • Conversely, RhD-negative people infected with Toxoplasma show slower reaction times than compared to RhD positive subjects.


  • RhD negative men more often reported certain mental health disorders including panic disorders, antisocial personality disorders and attention deficits, ticks, fasciculation, thyroiditis, immunity disorders, allergies, especially skin allergies, excessive bleedings, anemia, osteoporosis, liver disease, infectious diseases and acute diarrhea diseases, while they less often reported gall bladder attacks, coeliac disease, maldigestion, malabsobtion, warts, some types of cancers and prostate hypertrophy. [LINK]
  • RhD negative women reported more frequently psoriasis, constipation and diarrheas, ischemic diseases, type 2 diabetes, some types of cancers, lymphatic nodes swelling, vitamin B deficiency, thrombosis, tonsil stones, too high sex desire, precocious puberty, urinary tract infections, scoliosis and they less often reported hearing loss, weight loss, hypoglycemia, glaucoma, fasciculation and warts. [LINK]
    • The higher disease burden in RhD negative homozygotes could be compensated either by increased fitness of heterozygotes (heterozygote advantage hypothesis).
  • Rare Rh(null) red blood cells, which totally lack Rh proteins, are stomatocytic and spherocytic, and affected individuals have hemolytic anemia. [link]
    • Hemolytic anemia is a disorder in which red blood cells are destroyed faster than they can be made. 
    • Less than 50 people worldwide have this blood type.
    • It was first seen in Australian Aborigines.


  • It has been said that Rh- blood cannot be cloned.
    • There are 2 genes responsible for the Rh blood group system.
    • One gene codes for D antigen and another codes for C, c, E, e proteins.
      • The latter gene is present in all individuals irrespective of their phenotype.
    • RhD mRNA gives rise to a 417 AA polypeptide (the D antigen).
    • The Cc/Ee polypeptide is similar to the D polypeptide.
    • In the D antigen, however, the last 36 amino acids are rendered obsolete.
    • Scientists have successfully cloned the RhD gene, and on studying the expression product, it was found that the mRNA gave rise to RhD and RhCcEe proteins.
      • The mRNA produced showed no relation to RhD- individuals. 
    • Further attempts at cloning the RhD- gene showed that though the RhCcEe gene can be cloned, without the RhD gene it is unstable and doesn’t survive.
    • Ergo, this is why it is currently believed that clones need the RhD+ gene to survive, and cannot be RhD-. 


  • Human blood is Red because it contains Iron.
  • Crab blood is Blue because it contains Copper.
  • Red blood cells carry oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from our organs and tissues.
  • When Red Blood Cells are starved of oxygen, they also appear blue.
  • Other blue blood conditions resulting from poor oxygen are the result of inbreeding.


The O blood type likely arose during a micronova driven Earth Catastrophe and population bottleneck that occurred approximately 1 million years ago. We can infer this due to both the causes and effects of the O blood type.

Blood Types A & B evolve into Type O in the presences of high radiation, toxic smoke levels, and leukemia.

Type O blood represents a beneficial loss of function in the ABO gene.

Type O blood’s ability to more efficiently transport O2 likely evolved to handle lower levels of atmospheric oxygen during the years of fires that follow a micronova event.

Rh proteins aid in the transport of CO2 in and out of Red Blood Cells, thus further aiding Type O’s more efficient O2 intake.

Rh- represents a beneficial loss of function in the RH gene.

During such a catastrophe and population bottleneck, incest and inbreeding were extremely likely to occur, leading to any recessive genes becoming more prevalent, such as Rh-.

Furthermore, recent studies have shown that during the Younger Dryas Impact Event, the Y-DNA lineages did in fact, die off at a extremely higher rate than females.

This may have been due to a lack of food or the necessity of hunting & scavanging, but it also easily could have been due to radiation induced infertility among men who’s reproductive organs are on the outside of their bodies, as opposed to inside.

In any case, all our ancestors survived generations of hardship and catastrophes. While O appears to be the latest badass blood on the block, each blood type has unique benefits and susceptibilities.

I suspect most people identify with these struggles and traits, just as we all struggle with our familial karma.

Each is a unique path, and all have a purpose. I look forward to reading more about the benefits of other blood types in the future. However, it won’t be a part of this series. We have other things to discuss next.

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